Evaluating very nasty logarithmic integrals: Part II

In this post, we’ll evaluate some more nasty logarithmic integrals. Please read part 1 of this series if you haven’t done so already.

Integral #3

We’ll start by finding a closed form for the integral: I_1 = \int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+x^2)}{1+x^2}dx This integral can be reduced to Euler sums like our previous problem. But this time, the resulting Euler sums cannot be evaluated using the method of residues. Therefore, we’ll have to use a different approach.

Let us first consider the following integral: I_2 = \int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+ix)}{1+x^2}dx Throughout this post, \log denotes the principal branch of the logarithmic function defined by \log z = \log|z| + i\text{arg}(z), with -\pi < |\text{arg}(z)| \leq \pi. We have \begin{aligned} I_2 &= \frac{1}{2}\int_0^1\log^2(1+ix)\left(\frac{1}{1+ix}+\frac{1}{1-ix} \right)dx \\ &= \frac{\log^3(1+ix)}{6i}\Big|_0^1 + \frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+ix)}{1-ix}dx \\ &= \frac{\log^3(1+i)}{6i} + \frac{i}{2}\int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1-i}{2}}\frac{\log^2(2(1-x))}{x}dx \\ &= \frac{\log^3(1+i)}{6i} + \frac{i}{2}\int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1-i}{2}}\frac{\log^2(1-x)+\log^2(2)+2\log(2)\log(1-x)}{x}dx \\ &= \frac{\log^3(1+i)}{6i} + \frac{i\log^2(2)\log\left(1-i\right)}{2} + i\log(2) \left[\text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)-\text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1-i}{2}\right) \right] \\ &\quad + \frac{i}{2}\int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1-i}{2}}\frac{\log^2(1-x)}{x}dx \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (1)} \end{aligned} We can use equation (2) from (B) to evaluate \int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1+i}{2}}\frac{\log^2(1-x)}{x}dx. \begin{aligned} \int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1-i}{2}}\frac{\log^2(1-x)}{x}dx &= \log^2\left( \frac{1+i}{2}\right)\log\left(\frac{1-i}{2}\right) + 2\log\left(\frac{1+i}{2} \right)\text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) \\ &\quad -2\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) + \log^3(2) + 2\log(2)\text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1}{2}\right) + 2\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1}{2} \right) \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (2)} \end{aligned}

To simplify \text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1+i}{2} \right) and \text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1-i}{2} \right), we can use the following Dilogarithm identity: \text{Li}_2(1-z) + \text{Li}_2\left(1-z^{-1} \right) = -\frac{1}{2}\log^2(z) This is easy to verify by differentiating both sides of the above equation with respect to z. Plugging in z=\frac{1+i}{2} gives \begin{aligned} \text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1-i}{2}\right) &= -\text{Li}_2(i) - \frac{1}{2}\log^2\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) = \frac{5\pi^2}{96}-\frac{\log^2(2)}{8}+i\left(-G + \frac{\pi}{8}\log(2)\right) \\ \text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) &= \overline{\text{Li}_2\left(\frac{1-i}{2}\right)} = \frac{5\pi^2}{96}-\frac{\log^2(2)}{8}-i\left(-G + \frac{\pi}{8}\log(2)\right) \end{aligned}

Now, we have everything needed to simplify equation (1). This is a tedious task so I used Mathematica to do it. The final result is \begin{aligned} I_2 &= -\frac{3\pi^3}{128}- \frac{G \log(2) }{2} + \frac{7\pi \log^2(2)}{32} + i\Bigg( -\frac{ G \pi }{4} + \frac{7\pi^2 \log(2)}{192} + \frac{\log^3(2)}{48}+\frac{7}{8}\zeta(3) \\ &\quad - \text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2} \right)\Bigg) \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (3)} \end{aligned} As of now, I am not aware of a closed form expression for \text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2} \right). So, we’ll leave it as it is. We can now extract I_1 from the real part of I_2. \begin{aligned} \text{Re }I_2 &= \int_0^1 \frac{\frac{1}{4}\log^2(1+x^2) - \arctan^2(x)}{1+x^2}dx \\ &= \frac{1}{4}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+x^2)}{1+x^2}dx - \frac{\arctan^3(x)}{3}\Big|_0^1 \\ &= \frac{1}{4}I_1 - \frac{\pi^3}{192} \end{aligned} Therefore, \boxed{I_1 = -2G\log(2) - \frac{7\pi^3}{96} + \frac{7\pi \log^2(2)}{8} + 4\text{ Im }\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2} \right)}\quad \color{blue}{\cdots (4)} Now, let’s turn our attention to another integral: I_3 = \int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1+x^2)}{1+x^2}dx Notice that with the help of some algebra, we can write: I_3 = -\frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2\left(\frac{x}{1+x^2} \right)}{1+x^2}dx + \frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+x^2)}{1+x^2}dx + \frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(x)}{1+x^2}dx The leftmost integral can be dealt with the trigonometric substitution x=\tan \theta: \begin{aligned} \int_0^1 \frac{\log^2\left(\frac{x}{1+x^2} \right)}{1+x^2}dx &= \int_0^{\frac{\pi}{4}} \log^2\left(\sin \theta \cos\theta \right) \; d\theta \\ &= \int_0^{\frac{\pi}{4}} \log^2\left(\frac{\sin(2\theta)}{2} \right)\; d\theta \\ &= \frac{1}{2}\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\log^2\left(\frac{\sin \theta}{2} \right)\; d\theta \\ &= \frac{1}{2}\lim_{s\to 1}\frac{d^2}{ds^2}\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\left(\frac{\sin\theta}{2} \right)^{s-1}d\theta \\ &= \frac{1}{2}\lim_{s\to 1}\frac{d^2}{ds^2}\left[\frac{2^{-s}\sqrt{\pi}\Gamma\left(\frac{s}{2}\right)}{\Gamma\left(\frac{1+s}{2} \right)} \right] \\ &= \frac{\pi^3}{48}+ \pi \log^2(2) \end{aligned} The middle integral has already been evaluated. As for the rightmost integral, we have: \begin{aligned} \int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(x)}{1+x^2}dx &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^{n}\int_0^1 x^{2n}\log^2(x)\; dx \\ &= 2\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^3} \\ &= \frac{\pi^3}{16} \end{aligned} This gives us \boxed{I_3 =-\frac{\pi^3}{64} -G \log(2) - \frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{16} +2 \text{ Im }\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right)} \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (5)}

One can also evaluate I_4 = \int_0^1\frac{\log(1+x^2)\arctan(x)}{x}dx by noting that I_4 = \text{Im}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(1+ix)}{x}dx = \text{Im}\int_0^{-i}\frac{\log^2(1-x)}{x}dx and using equation (3) from (B).The end result is: \boxed{I_4 =-\frac{3\pi^3}{64}+G\log(2)-\frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{16}+2\text{ Im }\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) } \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (6)} Using I_3 and I_4, we can evaluate I_5 = \int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\arctan(x)}{x(1+x^2)}dx as follows: \begin{aligned} I_5 &= \int_0^1 \log(x)\arctan(x)\left(\frac{1}{x}-\frac{x}{1+x^2} \right) dx \\ &= \int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\arctan(x)}{x}dx - \int_0^1 \frac{x\log(x)\arctan(x)}{1+x^2}dx \\ &= -\frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2(x)}{1+x^2}dx + \frac{1}{2} \int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1+x^2)}{1+x^2} dx + \frac{1}{2}\int_0^1 \frac{\log(1+x^2)\arctan(x)}{x}dx \quad (\text{IBP}) \\ &= -\frac{\pi^3}{32} + \frac{I_3 + I_4}{2} \\ &= -\frac{\pi^3}{16} - \frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{16} + 2\text{ Im }\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right) \end{aligned} On the other hand, we have: \begin{aligned} I_5 &= \int_0^1 \log(x) \left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \tilde{H}_n x^{2n} \right) dx\\ &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \tilde{H}_n \int_0^1 x^{2n}\log(x) \; dx \\ &= -\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} \end{aligned} where \tilde{H}_n = \sum_{j=0}^n \frac{1}{2j+1}. This gives us an interesting Euler sum: \boxed{\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} = \frac{\pi^3}{16} + \frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{16} - 2\text{ Im }\text{Li}_3\left(\frac{1+i}{2}\right)}\quad \color{blue}{\cdots (7)} Of course, one can proceed in a similar manner to create more crazy integrals. The following problem is left as an exercise for the reader.

Exercise 1: Using the method of residues, show that \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n\tilde{H}_n}{2n+1} = \frac{G}{2}+\frac{\pi \log(2)}{8} \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (8)}

Integral #4

Many years ago, I encountered the following integral: I_6 = \int_0^1 \frac{x \arctan(x)\log(1-x^2)}{1+x^2}dx At that time, I couldn’t find a solution to this problem. Hence, I ended up asking it on math.stackexchange.com. The answers that I received there involved evaluating complex logarithmic integrals by brute force. Recently, I discovered a much simpler way to solve it using the method of residues.

Let’s start by breaking down I_6 into Euler sums. \begin{aligned} I_6 &= \int_0^1 x\log(1-x^2) \left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \tilde{H}_n x^{2n+1} \right)dx \\ &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \tilde{H}_n \int_0^1 x^{2n+2}\log(1-x^2) dx \\ &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^{n+1} \tilde{H}_n \left(\frac{\psi_0\left(n+\frac{5}{2} \right)+\gamma}{2n+3} \right) \\ &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^{n+1}\left(\tilde{H}_{n+1}-\frac{1}{2n+3} \right)\left(\frac{-2\log(2)+2\tilde{H}_{n+1}}{2n+3} \right) \\ &= \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \left(\tilde{H}_{n}-\frac{1}{2n+1} \right)\left(\frac{-2\log(2)+2\tilde{H}_{n}}{2n+1} \right) \\ &= -2\log(2)\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{2n+1}+2G\log(2) + 2\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n (\tilde{H}_n)^2}{2n+1} -2\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} \\ &= G\log(2) - \frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{4} + 2\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n (\tilde{H}_n)^2}{2n+1} -2\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (9)} \end{aligned} The result of exercise 1 was used in the last step.

Now, integrate the function f(z) = \pi\csc(\pi z) \frac{\left( \gamma + \psi_0 \left(-z+\frac{3}{2} \right)\right)^2}{-2z+1} over the positively oriented square, C_N, with vertices \pm \left(N+\frac{1}{4}\right)\pm i\left(N+\frac{1}{4} \right). It takes a bit of effort to see that \lim_{N\to \infty}\int_{C_N} f(z)\; dz = 0 This implies that the sum of residues of f(z) at it’s poles is equal to 0. We have

\begin{aligned} \mathop{\text{Res}}\limits_{z=-n} f(z) &= (-1)^n \frac{\left(\gamma +\psi_0\left(n+\frac{3}{2}\right) \right)^2}{2n+1} = (-1)^n \frac{\left(-2\log(2)+2\tilde{H}_n \right)^2}{2n+1}, \quad n\in\{0,1,2,\cdots\} \\ \mathop{\text{Res}}\limits_{z=n} f(z) &= (-1)^{n-1} \frac{\left(\gamma+\psi_0\left(-n+\frac{3}{2} \right) \right)^2}{2n-1} = (-1)^{n-1} \frac{\left(-2\log(2)+2\tilde{H}_{n-1} -\frac{2}{2n-1}\right)^2}{2n-1}, \quad n\in\{1,2,3,\cdots\} \\ \mathop{\text{Res}}\limits_{z=\frac{2n+1}{2}} f(z) &= (-1)^{n-1} \frac{\pi H_n}{n} - (-1)^{n-1} \frac{3\pi}{2n^2}, \quad n\in\{1,2,3,\cdots\} \end{aligned}

Summing up the residues and performing some algebraic simplifications gives: \begin{aligned} &\; 8\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n (\tilde{H}_n)^2}{2n+1}-8\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2}-16\log(2)\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{2n+1}+ 4\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^3} \\ &\quad + 8\log(2)\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n }{(2n+1)^2} + \pi\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n-1}H_n}{n} - \frac{3\pi}{2}\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n-1}}{n^2} = 0 \\ &\implies 8\left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n (\tilde{H}_n)^2}{2n+1}-\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} \right) + \frac{\pi^3}{8} + \pi \left(\frac{\pi^2}{12}-\frac{\log^2(2)}{2}\right)-\frac{3\pi}{2}\left(\frac{\pi^2}{12} \right) = 0 \\ &\implies \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n (\tilde{H}_n)^2}{2n+1}-\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n \tilde{H}_n}{(2n+1)^2} = -\frac{\pi^3}{96}+\frac{\pi \log^2(2)}{16} \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (10)} \end{aligned} In the above calculation, we used the result of exercise 1 and that \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n-1}H_n}{n} = \frac{\pi^2}{12}-\frac{\log^2(2)}{2} This follows from (A). Finally, plugging equation (10) into (9), gives \boxed{I_6 = -\frac{\pi^3}{48}-\frac{\pi}{8}\log^2 (2) +G\log (2)} \quad \color{blue}{\cdots (11)}

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